This page contains a summary of findings from a research project I conducted for the U.S. Naval Academy.  The research here informed new educational programs for all midshipmen in the Academy, starting in 2017.

Current Research on Male Military Sexual Trauma

Dr. John D. Foubert, LLC

 

Prevalence statistics

 

  1. 16% of military personnel and veterans report MST – 4% of men and 38% of women when the measure includes both harassment and assault. (Wilson, 2016).

  2. 14% report MST – 2% men and 24% women – when the measure assesses only assault.  (Wilson, 2016).

  3. 32% report MST 9% men, 53% women when the measure is only harassment.  (Wilson, 2016).

  4. In 2014, 20,300 military members experienced sexual assault – 10,600 men and 9,600 women.  (Morral, Gore, & Schell, 2015).

  5. 95% confidence that 18K-22.5K active duty service members experienced one or more sexual assaults in past year.  Out of 1,317,561. (1.5%).  1% of active duty men, 5% of active duty women. Morrall & Gore, 2014.

  6. 43% of female victims and 35% of male victims had penetrative sexual assaults (other kinds = non-penetrative and attempted).  (Morrall & Gore, 2014).

  7. MEO – sexual harassment – women in Navy and Marines, 1/3 in the last year.  Mostly sexually hostile environment; also gender discrimination. (Morrall & Gore, 2014).

  8. Men in Army – 1 in 12 had MEO; Navy 1 in 10 MEO.  Mostly sexually hostile work environment. (Morrall & Gore, 2014).

  9. For Navy – 1.5% of men and 6.5% of women experienced sexual assault in one year.  Navy men had highest rate, women had 2nd highest in Navy, highest in marines. (Morrall & Gore, 2014).

  10. Navy, of all services, had most sexually hostile work environment than all services. (Morrall & Gore, 2014).

  11. Unwanted sexual contact (Sexual assault) has a declining trend for women over time – 6.8, 4.4, 6.1, 4.3% from 2006 to 2014.  Men’s rates remained statistically equivalent. (Morrall & Gore, 2014).

  12. Navy had a significant drop in sexual assault of men from 2012 to 2014 (good).  Only service where this happened. (Morrall & Gore, 2014).

  13. In 2014, 62% of women who reported sexual assault to military authorities were retaliated against in at least one way.  Same as 2012.  (Morrall & Gore, 2014).

  14. Sexual harassment of active duty women is going down – from 33% in 2006 to 20% in 2014. (Morrall & Gore, 2014).

  15. Sexual harassment of men is going down over time from 6% in 2006 to 3.5% in 2014. (Morrall & Gore, 2014).

  16. Most of the change for both occurred from 2006 to 2010. (Morrall & Gore, 2014).

  17. In 2014 – 1,180 men and 4,104 women reported sexual assault to DOD.  This is low compared to ACTUAL numbers of incidents found in anonymous surveys (Farrell, 2015).

  18. 13% of men and 40% of women reported their assault.  This likely reflects the energy that the military has put into encouraging women to report; but ignoring men (Farrell, 2015).

  19. 23% of female and 1% of male veterans experience sexual trauma during their service.  Having MST leads to negative mental and physical health consequences. (Holliday, Williams, Bird, Mullen, & Suris, 2015).

  20. “The prevalence of MST is notably similar to lifetime prevalence rates of sexual assault and harassment in the general population.  Given that MST occurs within a restricted time period – typically 2 to 6 years of service, the incidence of sexual maltreatment appears to be higher for individuals in the military than in civilian life.  There are significantly higher rates of rape in veterans 49% than civilians, 22% (Allard, Nunnick, Gregory, Klest, & Platt, 2011). 

  21. “This study investigated tepeated attempted and completed rape (ACR) incidents reported by newly enlisted male navy personnel who participated in a longitudinal study during the transition from civilian to military life.  13% reported engaging in sexual behavior that approximates legal definitions of ACR since the age of 14.  Of those men, 71% reperpetrated ACR incidents (mean of 6).  Respondents reported perpetrating primarily completed rather than attempted rape, perpetrating multiple ACR incidents rather than a single incident, using substances to incapacity victims more frequently than force, and knowing their victim rather than targeting a stranger in completed rape incidents” p. 204. McWhorter, Stander, Merrill, Thomsen, & Milner, 2009)

  22. ACR perpetration during the first year of military service was nearly 10 times more likely if a man had committed a completed rape before entering the military than if he had not. McWhorter, Stander, Merrill, Thomsen, & Milner, 2009)

  23. A larger number of men experience sexual victimization annually in absolute numbers.  Women are more likely to experience the most severe forms of sexual harassment and assault (penetrative), men are more likely to experience physical injury or the threat of physical injury during the sexual assault in the military (perhaps hazing?)  Men are more likely to report more than one sexual assault during the previous year (ongoing hazing)?  Men may be less likely than women to experience severe sexual harassment and assault in the military, when they do experience severe assaults, these experiences tend to be repeated and characterized by physical injury.  Men are more likely than women to identify the intent of the assault as being to abuse or humiliate them (70% men, 42% women, very consistent with hazing) and to describe the event as hazing (34% men, 6% women).  Women’s experiences more likely to involve alcohol (56% women, 29% men), men’s experiences more likely to involve multiple perpetrators (49 v 35). Bell, Dardis, Vento, & Street (under review).

  24. Incoming male navy recruits, 13-15% have perpetrated premilitary rape or attempted rape. (Rau, Merrill, McWhorter, Stander, Thomsen, Dyslin, Crouch, Rabenhorst, & Milner, 2010).

  25. Men who report premilitary history of rape perpetration nearly 10 times more likely to commit rape or attempted rape during their first year of service. Rau, Merrill, McWhorter, Stander, Thomsen, Dyslin, Crouch, Rabenhorst, & Milner, 2010).

 

During a rape with male victim

 

  1. “Although many men experienced oral and anal penetration, they do not necessarily perceive these acts as ‘sexual.’  Instead, many of these acts are consistent with hazing and meant to humiliate the victim rather than to stimulate the alleged offender.” (Department of Defense, 2014 P.9)

  2. “Although male service members account for the majority of the survey estimated victims of sexual assault, a greater proportion of female victims report their assault (43% of women versus about 10% of men).” Department of Defense, 2014 P.9.

  3. “Compared to female cadet/midshipmen victims, a higher percentage of male cadets/midshipmen victims indicated that their sexual assault was a hazing incident and/or that it involved some form of horseplay, locker room behavior, or other similar behaviors. …compared to female cadet/midshipmen victims, fewer male cadet/midshipmen victims at each academy indicated that they or their alleged offender had been drinking alcohol at the time of the incident…” Department of Defense, 2014 3-4.

  4. A freeze response occurs in 60% the rapes of men.  “the intense fear of death forces male rape victims to remain cooperative when being raped, promoting their inability to fight back.”  (Javaid, 2015, p. 283). 

  5. Most male rape victims do not resist given the threat of violence administered to them.  Most victims, 73% reacted with submission, frozen fear, or helplessness. (Javaid, 2015).

  6. Men with history of sexual trauma had more severe psychiatric symptoms than men who did not.  Perceived self-efficacy decreased this association by ¼ -- it is part of the mechanism through which sexual trauma leads to psychiatric symptoms.  (Voller, Polusny, Noorbaloochi, Street, Grill, & Murdoch, 2015).

  7. Hazing is prohibited by UCMJ.  Real incident: “a series of escalating incidents that began with hitting the victim in the crotch, then throwing objects at the victims’ crotch, and ultimately then saying the hazing would stop if the victim performed oral sex on the assailants.”  (Farrell, 2015)

  8. Most sexual assaults of men are committed by men.  Around 6-15% have a female perpetrator. (Turchik & Edwards, 2012).

  9. “Training and outreach should communicate that sexual assault may also involve sexually abusive and humiliating acts like hazing and bullying” (RMWS and RSP). (Levine, 2016)

  10. “The 2014 RMWS asserts sexual assault victimization is highly correlated with the experience of sexual harassment.  Specifically, men who indicated sexual harassment in the past year were 49 times more likely to reveal being sexually assaulted than men who did not indicate being sexually harassed.  Sexually harassed women were 14 times more likely to indicate that they experienced a sexual assault than women who did not indicate sexual harassment.” (Levine, 2016, p.8)

  11. “Most of our male patients acknowledge questioning their own culpability for the assault, often reflecting the internalization of cultural norms about male sexual assault.  They also may be concerned because of their own physical responses during the assault.  During male rape, prostate stimulation from penetration and a parasympathetic response of erection/ejaculation may be confused with sexual orientation and result in the belief that they ‘must have enjoyed it.’  (this would compound trauma) (O’brien, Keith, & Shoemaker, 2015).

  12. Male initiators have more traditional gender beliefs, adhere more strongly to gender role stereotypes.  Women who coerce men “are more likely to reject the traditional sexual roles for women, significantly more likely to endorse the traditional stereotype of men’s sexual accessibility.   Hartwick, Desmarais, & Hennig, 2007

  13. Trauma effects the brain.  People with PTSD have parts of the brain that shrink, other parts don’t work as well.  (Irvine & Cola, 2015)

  14. The stress response from sexual violence has initial symptoms that typically begin immediately after the trauma but persist for at least 3 days. (Irvine & Cola, 2015)

 

Treatment and Reporting for male survivors 

 

  1. 10% of male sexual assault victims report it. (Levine, 2016)

  2. “The discrepancy between what society believes (i.e. a man should be strong) and what the male victim of MSA experiences (i.e. hopelessness, fear, and anger), causes intense confusion for the victim.  He then chooses the path of least resistance: to not seek treatment at all.”(Lin, 2005, Page ii).

  3. Most survivors don’t report MST.  (Johnson, Robinett, Smith & Cardin, 2015).

  4. Male military survivors are even less likely to report than female survivors. (Farrell, 2015).

  5. Majority of male survivors in military don’t trust their chains of command to report their sexual assault to them. (Farrell, 2015)

  6. GAO notes research that male and female victims need to be treated in a tailored fashion.  ‘Females are also hesitant to report sexual assault, males’ reluctance may be exacerbated by a sense of shame about not being in control and taking care of matters themselves, which are norms of masculinity.” (Weiss, 2010, p. 275) 

  7. Male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and great stigma compared to female victims. (Bullock & Beckson, 2011).

  8. Military culture impedes reporting.  Ideals of confidence, decisiveness and strength discourages a victim from reporting because they may feel being labeled as week.  Elements of unit cohesion could dissuade victims from reporting sexual assault.  This is especially true when victim and offender are in the same unit. (Farrell, 2015).

  9. Victim advocates report that some commanders decide not to address hazing incidents that are sexual assault.  (Note: This is an opportunity for this generation to change a culture (Farrell, 2015).

  10. In their interviews, GAO heard, regarding what male service members want from their commands to address sexual assault, is 1) support of leadership with a zero tolerance for sexual assault and a command climate encouraging reporting and 2) that their command address sexual assault on males including the stigma associated with male sexual assault victims (Farrell, 2015).

  11. “Male veterans seeking mental health treatment who had experienced sexual assault in the last 30 days were approximately twice as likely to have made a recent suicide attempt as veterans who had not recently experienced sexual assault.”  (Schry, Hibberd, Wagner, Turchik, Kimbrel, Wong, Elbogen, Strauss, & Brancu, 2015, p. 385)

  12. “Unit cohesion may prevent military personnel from reporting MST” (Morris, Smith, Farooqui, & Suris, 2014; p. 96)

  13. 65% of men who did not seek services said they would rather forget about an assault or handle it on their own rather than talk to someone else about it. (Turchik, McLean, Rafie, Hoyt, Rosen, & Kimerling, 2013)

  14. 60% of men who experienced MST felt marked feelings of shame and embarrassment. (Turchik, McLean, Rafie, Hoyt, Rosen, & Kimerling, 2013).

  15. A high predictor of recovery from trauma is the availability of social support. (Note: this is a great tie-in to the role of potential helpers in the fleet) (Bell, Dardis, Vento, & Street, under review).

 

Symptoms/Consequences of MST/MSA for men (how you can tell that one of your people is affected)

 

  1. Male rape – more than any other trauma – is most likely to lead to ptsd. (Turchik & Edwards, 2012).

  2. Likelihood that PTSD will follow a sexual assault is 65% for men, 46% for women. (O’brien, Keith, & Shoemaker, 2015).

  3.  “From the time MSA occurs, up to 30 years afterwards, negative symptoms related to MSA are common such as depression, shame, suicidal ideation, self-neglect, and anxiety. (Lin, 2005, Page ii).

  4. Male veterans who experience MST were treated poorly when they sought help from state and voluntary agencies.  They suffered secondary victimization such as victim blaming, inappropriate treatment by police, medical professionals, and others. (Javaid, 2015).

  5. “Socially constructed ideas of masculinity are not consistent with construction of the rape victim as weak, feminine, and defenseless.”   (Javaid, 2015).

  6. Health consequences of MST – increased risk of medical and psychiatric diagnoses, impaired daily functioning. (Johnson, Robinett, Smith & Cardin, 2015).

  7. When VA counselors were interviewed, they noted that male victims are more likely than women to have problems with behavioral control, interpersonal relationships, and sexual dysfunction.  (Farrell, 2015)

  8. Psychological symptoms in male survivors are harder to treat – more persistent and resistant to treat after MST; women have more sustained gains from treatment than do men. (O’Brien, 2013)

  9. There are two themes that are most frequently identified about trauma men experience from mst.  First, shame and questioning masculinity.  They experience shame, embarrassment, face the stigma that the assault portrays them as weak and not masculine.  Women are better able to open up about their assault as they are more aware that they are vulnerable in the first place.  Men don’t typically believe themselves to be susceptible and thus have more self-blame.  Second theme – questioning their sexuality.  Hetero men question their sexuality.  They often misunderstand physical responses during the assault and wonder if they wanted it or invited it. (Farrell, 2015)

  10. Research has shown that male victims of rape are blamed even more than female victims.  They are assumed to be homosexual and less deserving of sympathy or assistance.  (Turchik & Edwards, 2012).

  11. Common injuries for male rape victims are anal lacerations and bleeding, broken bones, skin and mucosal damage, nongonococcal urethritis, and stis.  They often have psychiatric consequences.  Adult male survivors have lower self-esteem, more depression, are more likely to be suicidal, and do more self-harm.  Anxiety and PTSD, substance abuse and dependence, social difficulties, and sexual dysfunctions are all more common among male survivors than men who have not had such an experience. (Turchik & Edwards, 2012).

  12. “The 2014 RMWS asserts sexual assault victimization is highly correlated with the experience of sexual harassment.  Specifically, men who indicated sexual harassment in the past year were 49 times more likely to reveal being sexually assaulted than men who did not indicate being sexually harassed.  Sexually harassed women were 14 times more likely to indicate that they experienced a sexual assault than women who did not indicate sexual harassment.” (Levine, 2016, p.8)

  13. “Men who experienced sexual assault after joining the military exhibited lower career commitment (as measured by self-reported intent to remain in the military) compared to men who were not assaulted.  The difference in career commitment between women who had been sexually assaulted and those who had not been assaulted was not statistically significant.”  (Department of Defense, 2014 P. 5)

  14. “The closeness of the relationship between victim and perpetrator has been associated with increased dissociation, and ptsd symptoms as well as impaired reasoning regarding interpersonal relationships, disrupted memory for the abuse, and nondisclosure of abuse.  The impact of interpersonal trauma is greatest when the victim is dependent upon the perpetrator because this creates conflict between adaptive responses to betrayal and the need to maintain attachment to the relied-upon other.  This scenario applies to MST experiences, as most MST is perpetrated by fellow service members, many of whom depend on one another for their very survival.”  Allard, Nunnick, Gregory, Klest, & Platt, 2011 331-332

Myths about the rape of men (a.k.a. male rape myths)

 

  1. Several cultural myths about the rape of men are now apparent in the U.S.  They include “1) men cannot be raped, 2) real men can defend themselves against rape; 3) only gay men are victims and/or perpetrators of rape; 4) men are not affected by rape (or not as much as women); 5) a woman cannot sexually assault a man; 6) male rape only happens in prisons; 7) Sexual assault by someone of the same sex causes homosexuality; 8) homosexual and bisexual individuals deserve to be sexually assaulted because they are immoral and deviant; and 9) if a victim physically responds to an assault he must have wanted it.  (Turchik & Edwards, 2012).

  2. “Higher acceptance of both female and male rape myths was associated with a lowered intent to help someone known to the bystander.  In contrast, after controlling for both types of RMA, only male RMA had a negative relationship with intent to help a stranger.” (Rosenstein & Carroll, 2015, p. 1).

  3. “One difference between male and female myths is that myths associated with male victims often question a victim’s masculinity or sexuality – he should have been able to defend himself, if he was raped by another man he must be gay.” (Rosenstein & Carroll, 2015).

  4. Women with higher levels of male RMA are less likely to intervene than men (interesting). (Rosenstein & Carroll, 2015).

 

Actual responses a female survivor received when she told colleagues about being assaulted

 

  1. “Wow, I’m sorry  how about we get you a bigger uniform so he can’t see your figure?

  2. “Ohh… maybe if you didn’t wear make-up then he wouldn't find you attractive.

  3. “That sucks, but hey – everyone knows he is creepy and does stuff like this all the time.  I guess he just picked you this year.  Sorry man.”

  4. “a few of us figured he’d try to mess with you since you’re the only single one.  You should try to get some dependents or something (children or a spouse), maybe he’ll leave you alone then?

  5. “You know, if you weren’t so nice then he wouldn’t find you approachable.  You need to stop being a team player.”

  6. “Look, everyone knows he does this stuff.  Do you want to ruin your career or our career because you have an issue with it?

  7. Let me give you an officer professional development – women in the military are either bitches or whores.  You aren’t a bitch so I guess you chose your path by default.” (Anonymous, 2015.)

 

Men’s risk factors for surviving sexual assault

 

  1. Men with military service had a higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in all 11 categories than men without military service.  IN the all-volunteer era, men with military service had twice the odds of reporting forced sex before the age of 18 compared with men without military service.  (men escaping hard home environment?) (Blosnich, Dichter, Cerulli, Batten, & Bossarte, 2014)

  2. “Enlistment may serve as an escape from adversity for some individuals, at least among men.” (Blosnich, Dichter, Cerulli, Batten, & Bossarte, 2014 P. 1041).

  3. Men with a history of military service had twice the prevalence of all forms of sexual abuse than their nonmilitary male peers: being touched sexually (11% v 5%) being forced to touch another sexually (10% to 4%) and being forced to have sex (4% to 2%) (Blosnich, Dichter, Cerulli, Batten, & Bossarte, 2014).

 

Select Statistics about Women

 

  1. In a study of women veterans, more than half were physically or sexually abused before enlisting tin the military – of those, 86% indicated enlisting to escape an abusive or distressing environment.  Blosnich, Dichter, Cerulli, Batten, & Bossarte, 2014

  2. 90% of female veterans who were sexually abused were abused by a parent. Blosnich, Dichter, Cerulli, Batten, & Bossarte, 2014

  3. 10% of female nonveterans who were sexually abused were abused by a parent. Blosnich, Dichter, Cerulli, Batten, & Bossarte, 2014

 

Results from 2016 USNA Gender Relations Survey (Van Winkle, 2017). 

 

  1. In 2016, 5.5% of USNA women experienced unwanted sexual touching, 4.3% experienced attempted penetration, and 4.7% experienced completed penetration.  In total, 14.5% of USNA women experienced some form of unwanted sexual contact.  That is one in seven female midshipmen.

  2. Offenders were almost always in their same class year (70%).  Most incidents involved either the woman, man, or both consuming alcohol (74%). 

  3. 27% of women described what happened to them as some form of hazing or bullying.

  4. 12% of these women officially reported that they were sexually assaulted.

  5. In 2016, 1.2% of USNA men experienced unwanted sexual touching, .5% experienced attempted penetration, and .3% experienced completed penetration.  In total, 2.1% of USNA men experienced some form of unwanted sexual contact.  

  6. A majority of offenders were in their same class year at the academy (59%).  Alcohol was consumed by one or the other in 56% of cases.  Less than 1% officially reported their sexual assault.

  7. Of the men who experienced unwanted sexual contact, 22% said the offender was a member of an intramural club or sports team, 12% said the offender was a member of an intercollegiate, NCAA sports team at the Academy. 

  8. 29% of men described what happened to them as some form of hazing or bullying.

  9. Before they arrived at the academy, 20% of women and 4.5% of men at the Academy experienced unwanted sexual contact. 

  10. Of the women who experienced unwanted sexual contact, 26% of offenders were from a higher class year, 14% were in their chain of command, 20% were members of an intramural club or sports team, 16^ were a member of an intercollegiate, NCAA sports team.

  11. Of those men who were sexually assaulted, 22% said someone was present and stepped in to help; 37% said someone was present but did not step in to help. 

  12. Of those women who were sexually assaulted, 18% said someone was there and stepped in to help; 37% said someone was there and did not step in to help. 

  13. Among women who did not official report, 62% didn’t think it was serious enough to report, 56^ took care of it by avoiding the offender, 55% forgot about it and moved on, 53% didn’t want other people to know, and 49% didn’t want people talking or gossiping about them.

  14. Among men who did not report, 79% didn’t think it was important enough to report, 42% said they took care of it by confronting the offender, 37% said they forgot about it and moved on, 31% said they avoided the offender, and 29% said they did not report for some other reason. 

  15. 32% of USNA women believe people falsely report sexual assault.

  16. 36% of USNA men believe people falsely report sexual assault. 

References

 

Allard, C.B., Nunnick, S., Gregory, A.M., Klest, B., Platt, M. (2011).  Military sexual trauma research: A proposed agenda.  Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 12(3), 324-345.

 

Anonymous (2015). Being my own Virgil: My journey through Inferno from military sexual trauma.  Psychological Services, 12(4), 339-343.

 

Aosved, A.C., Long, P.J., & Voller, E.K. (2011).  Sexual Revictimization and adjustment in college men.  Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 12(3), 285-296. 

 

Bell, M. E., Dardis, C. M., Vento, S. A., & Street, A. E. (2017). Victims of Sexual Harassment and Assault in the Military: Understanding Risks and Promoting Recovery. Military Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/mil0000144

 

Blosnich, J.R., Dichter, M.E., Cerulli, C., Batten, S.V., & Bossarte, R.M. (2014).  Disparities in adverse childhood experiences among individuals with a history of military service.  JAMA Psychiatry, 71(9), 1041-1048.

 

Bouldin, P.L. & Grayson, A.M. (2010).  Perceptions of sexual harassment and sexual assault: A study of gender differences among U.S. Navy officers.  Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey California.

 

Bullock, C.M. & Beckson, M. (2011).  Male victims of sexual assault: Phenomenology, Psychology, Physiology.  Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry Law, 39, 197-205.

 

Burrowes, N. & Horvath, T (2013).  The rape and sexual assault of men: A review of the literature.  NB Research, United Kingdom.

 

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Choudhary, E., Coben, J., & Bossarte, R.M. (2010).  Adverse health outcomes, perpetrator characteristics, and sexual violence victimization among U.S. adult males.  Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(8), 1523-1541.

 

Choudharay, E., Gunzler, D., Tu, X. & Bossarte, R.M. (2012).  Epidemiological characteristics of male sexual assault in a criminological database.  Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(3), 523-546.

 

Davies, M., & Rogers, P. (2006).  Perceptions of male victims in depicted sexual assaults: A review of the literature.  Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11, 367-377.

 

Department of Defense Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military FY 2014.  Appendix C: Response to the U.S. Government Accountability Office’s Report on Male Victims.

 

Department of Defense Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (2012).  Department of defense annual report on sexual assault in the military: Fiscal year 2011.  Washington DC: Author.

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Foubert, J.D. & Masin, R.C. (2012).  Effects of the men’s program on U.S. army soldiers’ intentions to commit and willingness to intervene to prevent rape: A pretest posttest study.  Violence and Victims, 27(6), 911-921.

 

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Hartwick, C. Desmarais, S., & Hennig, K. (2007).  Characteristics of male and female victims of sexual coercion.  The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 16 (1-2), 31-44.

 

Holliday, R., Williams, R., Bird, J., Mullen, K., & Suris, A. (2015).  The role of cognitive processing therapy in improving psychosocial functioning, health, and quality of life in veterans with military sexual trauma-related posttraumatic stress disorder.  Psychological Services, 12 (4), 428-434.

 

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Javaid, A. (2015).  Male rape myths: Understanding and explaining social attitudes surrounding male rape.  Masculinities and Social Change, 4(3): 270-294. 

 

Jenson, T.S. (2011).  Soldier rape, our own worst enemy: The effects of deployment, sex ratios, and military branch on the sexual assault of active duty women in the U.S. Military.  Dissertation.  University of Oklahoma.

 

Johnson, N.L., Robinett, S., Smith, L.M., & Cardin, S. (2015).  Establishing a new military sexual trauma treatment program: Issues and recommendations for design and implementation.  Psychological Services, 12(4), 435-442.

 

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Levine, P. (2016).  Plan to prevent and respond to sexual assault of military men.  U.S. Department of Defense. Washington, DC.

 

Lin, D.B. (2005).  The traumatization of male sexual assault: An integrative literature review.  Doctoral Dissertation, Wright Institute Graduate School of Psychology.

McWhorter, S.K., Stander, V.A>, Merrill, L.L., Thomsen, C.J., Milner, J.S. (2009).  Reports of rape perpetration by newly enlisted male navy personnel.  Violence and Victims, 24 (2), 204-218.

 

Mondragon, S.A., Wang, D., Pritchett, L., Graham, D.P., Plasencia, M.L., Teng, E.J. (2015).  The influence of military sexual trauma on returning OEF/OIF male veterans. Psychological Services, 12 (4), 402-411.

 

Morral, A.R., Gore, K.L, & Schell, T.L. (Eds.). 2015  Sexual assault and sexual harassment in the U.S. Military Volume 2: Estimates for Department of Defense Service Members from the 2014 Rand Military Workplace Study.

 

Morral, A.R. & Gore, K.L. (2014).  Sexual assault and sexual harassment in the U.S. Military: Top-line estimates for active-duty service members from the 2014 RAND military workplace study.  RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA.

 

Morris, E.E., Smith, J.C., Farooqui, S.Y., Suris, A. (2014).  Unseen battles: The recognition, assessment, and treatment issues of men with military sexual trauma (MST).  Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15(2), 94-101.

 

National Institute of Mental Health.  Brain Basics.  Retrieved February 26, 2017. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/educational-resources/brain-basics/brain-basics.shtml#WorkingBrain

 

Northcut, T.B. & Kienow, A. (2014).  The trauma trifecta of Military Sexual Trauma: A case study illustrating the integration of mind and body in clinical work with survivors of MST.  Clinical Social Work Journal, 42, 247-259.

 

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(c) 2019 John Foubert

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